Infrastructure

K-Alpha, Monochromated high-performance XPS spectrometer

Thermo Scientific, UK

XPS In X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) we are concerned with a special form of photoemission, i.e., the ejection of an electron from a core level by an X-ray photon of energy hv. The energy of the emitted photoelectrons is then analysed by the electron spectrometer and the data presented as a graph of intensity (usually expressed as counts or counts/s) versus electron energy - the Xray induced photoelectron spectrum. XPS is a surface sensitive technique, since the depth from which information can be derived is a few nanometers (2-10 nm). In our laboratory we are performing surface analysis of solid samples (plates, films, powders) of the size up to 60 x 60 x 20 mm (width x length x height).

More about the XPS Spectroscopy lab you can find on www.polymer.sav.sk/machina2.html

Short Specification:
X-ray monochromator; FWHM Ag 3d5/2 at least 0,5 eV (high resolution spectra)
X-ray spot size: 30 µm - 400 µm
Multichannel detector with 128 channels (with „snap-shot“ aquisition mode for XPS imaging)
1.0 eV (FWHM) on the peak Ag 3d5/2 with the height of the peak 1 000 000 cps by the spot size 400 µm and 50 000 cps by the spot size 30 µm
Flood gun for the charge compensation (measurement of insulating samples)
Ion gun for depth profiling
Fully automated (automated entry lock and sample transfer, safety interlocked, turbomolecular pumped loadlock, data acquisition, data processing, report generation, auto analysis mode of operation)

 

Broadband Dielectric Spectrometer Concept 40

Novocontrol, Germany

Dielectric Spectrometer This is our high end system for the frequency range from 3 μHz - 20 MHz (12.5 decades) based on the Alpha-A modular measurement system for dielectric, conductivity, electrochemical and impedance spectroscopy with several test interfaces. The sample impedance is directly determined by the phase-sensitive measurement of the sample voltage and current at fixed frequency. In combination with the ZGS active sample cell interface, the standard sample arrangement is a parallel plate capacitor with diameters from 40 mm to 10 mm and a spacing between the plates from 20 mm to 10 μm.

Short Specification:
Frequency: 3.10-5 .. 2.107 Hz
Capacity: 10-15 .. 1 F
Impedance: 0.01 - 1014 Ω
Loss factor tan(δ): accuracy < 3.10-5, resolution 10-5

 

SP-200

Bio-Logic Science Instruments

SP-200

SP-200 is the newest, research grade, value-oriented potentiostat / galvanostat in the Bio-Logic product range.
With excellent specifications in a portable chassis, the SP-200 is the perfect instrument for any application in electrochemistry especially in corrosion.
The SP-200 offers outstanding features such as a floating mode, analog filtering, a built-in calibration board, and 9 stability bandwidths for a better control of the cell.
SP-200 offers measurement with a standard DC potentiostat or an EIS capable one. There is also an Ultra Low Current (ULC) option.

Short Specification:
Compliance: ±12 V
Control voltage: ±10 V
EIS measurement: 3 MHz (1%, 1°) 7 MHz (3%, 3°)
Current ranges: 500 mA to 1 µA (10 nA with gain)
Current resolution 760 fA (standard board)
Low current: 6 ranges from 100 nA to 1 pA with resolution to 76 aA
Floating mode
Analog filtering
Calibration board
Full stability control mode (9 bandwidths)

 

Nanoindentor Hysitron TI 750 Ubi

Hysitron, USA

Nanoindentor

The TI 750 Ubi nanomechanical test instrument is a dedicated scanning nanoindenter. Its top-quality, robust and compact design combined with Hysitron's exclusive in-situ SPM imaging capability and performech control unit makes it superior in both function and performance. This affordable stand-alone nanomechanical test instrument is capable of performing a variety of quasi-static nanoindentation with upgradeable automation and nanoscratch capabilities. The direct coupling of Hysitron's patented three-plate capacitive transducer to an SPM piezo scanner enables true in-situ SPM imaging of the test surface immediately before and after the indentation test, eliminating the need for switching the heads or translating of the sample stage. The nanometer resolution in-situ imaging, tip positioning abilities, increased senstivity and feedback rate of the TI 750 Ubi with the performech control unit assist in the research of low displacement, high-resolution testing.

Short Specification:
Maximum Force: 10 mN
Load Resolution: <1nN
Load Noise Floor: <30nN
Maximum Depth: 5.20µm
Disp. Resolution: 0.04nm
Disp. Noise Floor: <0.2nm
Thermal Drift: <0.05nm/sec

 

Dynamic Mechanical Analyser DMA Q800

TA Instruments

Dielectric Spectrometer Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a linear viscoelastic technique, which is useful for determining such important mechanical properties as loss factor, storage and loss moduli under sinusoid deformation. It is a mainstream characterization technique for polymers to determine transition temperatures, physical ageing, degradation of polymers, miscibility, optimal time for vulcanization etc.

Short Specification:
Force range: 0.0001 N to 18 N
Amplitudes in a dynamic experiment: 0.5μm to 10,000 μm
Frequency range: 0.01 to 200 Hz.

 

Rheometer AR2000

TA Instruments

Dielectric Spectrometer The TA Instruments AR 2000 Rheometer is a controlled stress/controlled rate rheometer capable of handling many different types of samples, using a range of geometry sizes and types.

Short Specification:
Torque range: 0.1 mNm to 200 mNm
Frequency range 0.12 μHz to 100 Hz
Temperature range: 0°C to 600°C

 

Electrospinning

Electrospinning

The nanofiber technology of present interest focuses on the electrospinning technique, which conveniently allows the preparation of fibrous materials with very fine diameters ranging from submicron to several nanometres, through an electrically charged jet of polymer solutions. The basic setup consists of syringe with polymeric solution with a metallic needle tip. On the needle is connected high voltage supply. If the electrostatic force was able to overcome the surface tensions of the sample solution, the fibers are created. These are collected on the grounded metal collector, where is so called non-woven mat established.

 

Plasma generator Low Cost System Zepto

Diener electronic GmbH

Plasma generator Low Cost System Zepto

Plasma technology can be used on different materials such as glass, metal, plastics, textiles and ceramics and for different purposes such as surface cleaning, surface activation, surface etching and surface deposition – plasmapolymerization.
Organic remains are chemically transformed during the plasma process. The surface is subjected to a fine cleaning. Nearly all materials can be cleaned with an oxygen plasma.
Plasma activation is used to transform non-polar surfaces such as plastics (PDMS, PE, PP, ...) into adhesive surfaces. The surface energy is increased without damaging the material’s properties.
Teflon surfaces must be etched in order to become hydrophilic. Plasma etching is performed without aggressive chemicals.
Monomers with a suitable vapor pressure are implemented and used to produce various effects on the surface.

Short Specification:
Generator: 13.56 MHz, 0 - 50 W
Vacuum chamber: round, borosilicate glass, cap, Ø approx. 105 mm, length: approx. 300 mm, chamber volume: approx. 2.6 liter
Standard electrode: (aluminium/stainless steel, outside the chamber)
Gas supply: 2 gas supplies through needle valve
Vacuum pump: suction power: 2 m3/h/h
Control: manual

 

Inductively-coupled radio-frequency discharge plasma reactor

Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Slovak Academy of Sciences

radio-frequency discharge plasma reactor This equipment is used for uniformly treatment of inorganic and polymeric powders. Low-temperature radio-frequency density plasma is generated by electromagnetic induction using 13.56 MHz frequency and pressure 0.1 kPa.

Short Specification:
Frequency: 13.56 MHz
Pmax: 600 W
Pressure = 0.1 kPa

 

Capacitively-coupled radio-frequency discharge plasma reactor

Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Slovak Academy of Sciences

plasma This equipment is suitable for surface treatment of polymeric foils as well as 3D products. Low-temperature radio-frequency plasma is generated between two brass circle electrodes, from which one is grounded and second is powered. The largest distance between two adjustable circle electrodes is 40 mm.

Short Specification:
Frequency: 13.56 MHz
Pmax : 600 W
Pressure: 0.1 kPa

 

Dielectric coplanar surface barier discharge plasma reactor

Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathemathics and Physics, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
Institute of Electrical Engineering of Slovak Academy of Sciences

plasma This equipment is used for surface treatment of foils. Macroscopic homogenously high-density plasma is generated under dynamic conditions at atmospheric pressure. Plasma is generated by two parallel banded system of electrodes (1-mm wide, 50 micrometers thick, with 0.5 mm spacing between the strips, made of Ag-paste) embedded in 96 % Al2O3-promotion of national purity.

Short Specification:
Frequency: 15 kHz
Um : 10 kV
Pmax : 450 W
Pressure: 100 kPa

 

Tensiometer K100

Kruss, Germany

Tensiometer K100 Device for measuring contact angle, wetting, surface tension, interfacial tension and surface energy. Suitable also for powders and other porous materials.

 

Surface Energy Evaluation system

Advex Instruments, Czech Republic

Surface Energy Evaluation system This equipment is a portable computer-based instrument designed primarily for measurement of testing liquids contact angle and determination of surface energy of polymers. It consists of rugged aluminium body, colour USB 2.0 camera with 1.3MPix resolution movable in vertical direction and 2D horizontally movable table for samples. Included software handles all operations: saving images, analysis of drop profile and of the contact angle, determination of surface energy on the basis of various calculation models.

Short Specification:
Dimension: 175 x 160 x 145 mm
Camera colour: 1280x960
Drop dimension range: 0.5 – 20 microliter connected through USB port

 

Ultrasonic processor UP400S

Hielscher, Germany

Ultrasonic processor UP400S The ultrasonic processor UP400S is powerfull laboratory device for the generation of nano-size material slurries, dispersions and emulsions because of the potential in the deagglomeration and the reduction of primaries.

Short Specification:
Poweroutput: 400W
Working frequency: 24 kHz
Sonotrode H7 (diameter 7mm): Max amplitude: 175 µm
Acoustic power density: 300 W/cm2
Volumes: 10-250 ml

 

Micro-compounder DSM Xplore 15 ml

DSM Xplore, The Netherlands

Micro-compounder DSM Xplore 15 ml Micro-compounder serve for preparation of composites and nanocomposites based on polymer matrix by melt-mixing. As fillers various organic or inorganic materials can be used. In the compounding step, a base material is compounded with additives to form a homogeneous mixture.

Short Specification:
Volume of mixing chamber: 15 ml
Max. working temperature: 400 °C
Adjustable speed of rotation: 1 - 250 rpm
Max. axial force: up to 8000 N.
Max torque: 10 N / m for one screw

 

Plasti-corder Brabender PLE 331

Brabender, Germany

Plasti-corder Brabender PLE 331 Plasti-corder Brabender is an equipment for preparing polymer composites, i.e. blends of polymers or polymers filled with inorganic or organic fillers, additives, etc. for improving properties of polymeric materials. Composites can be prepared in two chambers or continually in a twin screw extruder. Chambers are heated by silicon oil and extruder is electrically heated.

Short Specification:
Temperature range: 25 - 250 °C (oil heating) or 25 - 300 °C (electric heating)
Mixing rate: 0 - 120 rpm
Volume of chambers: 30ml and 50ml

 

Calander Nishimura

Nishimura, Tokyo, Japan

Calander Nishimura Equipment is designed for mixing of rubbers and compositions based on rubbers with different additives. It works at room temperature without heating of cylinders.

Short Specification:
Number of cylinders 2
Friction ratio 1:1,4
Performance 0.75 kW

 

Hydraulic press Fontijne SRA-100

Fontijne, The Netherlands

Hydraulic press Fontijne SRA-100 The hydraulic press is used for molding of polymeric materials into sheets or strips. Heating temperature of pressing plates is adjusted to be higher than the melting point of the polymer. Press provides downforce setting to the desired value.

Short Specification:
Number of plates: 2
Temperature range: 25 - 250 °C
Maximum pressure: 100 kN (SR-100) and 50 kN (TP 50)
Cooling: by water

 

Dynamometer Instron 3365

Instron Corporation, USA

Dynamometer Instron 3365 Dynamometer Instron is an equipment for testing mechanical properties of wide range of materials in tension, compression or flexure. There is a possibility to provide simple, cyclic or relax types of test.

Short Specification:
Load Capacity: 5 kN
Maximum speed: 1000 mm/min.
Maximum data rate: 100 pts/sec.

 

Dynamometer Instron 4301

Instron Corporation, USA

Dynamometer Instron 4301 Dynamometer Instron is an equipment for testing mechanical properties of wide range of materials in tension, compression or flexure. There is a possibility to provide simple, cyclic or relax types of test.

Short Specification:
Load Capacity: 5 kN, 100 N
Maximum speed: 500 mm/min.
Maximum data rate: 20 pts/sec.

 

Dynamometer Shimadzu AGS-J

Shimadzu Corporation, Japan

Dynamometer Shimadzu AGS-J Dynamometer Shimadzu is an equipment for testing mechanical properties of wide range of materials in tension, compression or flexure. There is a possibility to provide simple, cyclic or relax types of test. There is additional equipment - thermostatic chamber TCE-N300.

Short Specification:
Load Capacity: 5 kN, 500 N
Speed range: 1 - 500 mm/min.
Maximum data rate: 20pts/sec.
Temperature range: - 70°C - + 280°C

 

Shimadzu UV-16 50PC UV-VIS spectrophotometer

Measurements ofUV-Vis absorption spectra of transparent and semitransparent solutions and solid samples (films).

 

Shimadzu RF-5301PC Fluorescence spectrofluorophotometer

Static measurements of excitation and emission fluorescence spectra of compounds in liquid solvents or in solid samples (films)in range of excitation and emission 250 – 900 nm. Instruments is equipped with solid sample holder with front face arrangement (possibility of measurements of non-transparent films), holder for horizontal arrangement (detection to external detector) and thermostated sample holder for 1x1 cm cuvette.

 

Variable fluorescence spectrometer: Ocean Optics QE 65000 fluorescence detector; source of excitation laser diode 405 nm

Detector of light in range 200 – 1100 nm with optical fibre input, long-pass filter. Laser diode excitation source 405 nm equipped by optical fibre output, sample holder for 1x1 cm cuvette.

 

Time Correlated Single Photon Counting spectrofluorometer Becker&Hickl

Modular system for time-resolved fluorescence measurements of fluorescent molecules, characterization of different environments, investigation of different processes using fluorescent probes and labels.

Instrument consist of Ultra-fast TCSPC module with multi-wavelength detection - 16 simultaneously recording wavelength channels for spectral resolution, Spectral range 300-850 nm (PML detector), resolution 180 ps; Pulsed diode laser - wavelength 375 nm, Pulse width down to 60 ps, repetition rate 20-50-80 MHz; Different type of samples – liquid, transparent, non-transparent films (excitation angle 25-90°).

 

HPLC-GPC

Shimadzu - Liquid chromatography worked in GPC mode for molecular characteristics of polymers. Instrument consists of isocratic pump, degasser and RI detector. Variable mobile phase and column equipment depend on request. Setup is extended with Shimadzu RF-10A XL fluorescence detector.

Agilent - Liquid chromatography worked in GPC mode for molecular characteristics of polymers. Instrument consists of quaternary isocratic pump, degasser, auto sampler and RI detector. Mobile phase is tetrahydrofuran run in 3 SDV PSS columns.

 

HPLC ispcratic pumps and detectors

Specifications:
• Evaporative light scattering detector from Polymer Laboratories, PL-ELS 1000, from ambient to high temperature; Light Source¬: Halogen lamp; Detector: Photodiode; Evaporator temperature: 30-300oC; Nebulizer temperature: 30-220 oC; Eluent flow rate: 0 – 1 mL.min-1; Maximum gas pressure: 150 psi.
• Evaporative light scattering detector from Varian, 380-LC is ideal for the detection of
non-volatile compounds, where temperatures of 100oC or above are required. Light Source: LED 480 nm; Detector: Photodiode; Evaporator temperature: 30-120oC; Nebulizer temperature: 30-90 oC; Eluent flow rate: 0,2 – 5 mL.min-1; Maximum gas pressure: 100 psi.
• DeltaChrom™ P102 isocratic pump from Watrex Praha, Maximum pressure: 0-6000 psi; Flow range: 0.01 – 9.99 mL.min-1

Expertise: Molecular characterization of block copolymers or mixtures of polystyrene and poly(meth)acrylates and polyesters by menas of liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of enthalpic interactions with stationary phases (adsorption or desorption retention mechanism) in various eluents. After separation of macromolecules according to different interactions, GPC mode as second dimension could be applied.

 

Raman and NIR spectrometer

Raman portable spectrometer in range 70 – 3250 cm-1 with resolution 3.5 cm-1 equiped with excitation laser at 532 nm with variable intensity and small microscope (objective 20x) and CCD camera. NIR module works in range 1100 – 2200 nm with resolution 6 nm. NIR module is equipped with InGaAs detector and 20W Halogen-Wolfram irradiation lamp. Modular spectrometer is additionally equipped with integrating sphere (250-2500 nm >97%), reflection probe (200 micrometer) and immersion probe (400 micrometer).

 

High Voltage Power Supplier, Spellman SL150W

Specification: Preparation of fiber materials in electric field (Electrospinning). Fibers with diameters ranging from micro- to nano-sizes, voltage up to 70kV, with positive and negative polarity.
Typical Applications: Analytical X-ray, Capacitor Charging, CPT/CRT Testing, Hipot Testing, Electrostatics, General Laboratory, E-Beam Systems, CW Lasers.

Contact: alena.siskova@savba.sk

 

FOCUS gas chromatograph



Analysis of organic compounds equipped with FID detector for temperatures up to 350 °C.

 

Chemiluminometer LUMIPOL 4



MORE DETAIL ABOUT INSTRUMENT

Lumipol 3 is an extremely sensitive photon counting instrument for measuring chemiluminescence with almost zero background signal. The instrument measures ultra weak light emissions accompanying reactions of various substrates usually of oxidation character.

 

DSC, TGA

DSC Mettler-Toledo 821e and TGA Mettler-Toledo 851e are used at the study of thermal behavior of polymer materials. The changes of thermal properties (DSC) and mass (TGA) in polymers at the dynamic or isothermal modes are investigated. DSC method is widely used at characterization of polymers such as the determination of enthalpies and temperatures of melting, crystallization, evaporation, degradation, decomposition and glass transition. TGA measurements give information about weight changes during the degradation and amount of mass residuum after decomposition of studied materials.

 

Cone calorimeter

Modern device used to study the fire behavior of small samples of various materials in condensed phase. Heat release is the key measurement required to assess the fire development of materials and products.

Parameters obtained from CC:

ignition time (s), mass lost (g)
EHC effective heat of combustion (MJ/kg)
heat release rate HRR (kW/m2)
MLR mass loss rate (g/s)
SEA specific extinction area (m2/kg)
COY CO yield (kg/kg)
CO2Y (kg/kg)
HRR heat rate release (s)
THR total heat release (MJ/m2)
TOC Total oxygen consumed (g)
TSR Total smoke release (m2/ m2)
TSP Total smoke production (m2)
MARHE maximum rate of heat emission (kW/m2)

The FTT Cone Calorimeter measurements meet all existing Standards (including ISO 5660, ASTM E1354, ASTM E1474, ASTM E1740, ASTM F1550, ASTM D6113, CAN ULC 135 and BS 476 Part 15)

Conical Heater is wound in the form of a truncated cone, rated 5000 W at 230 V with a heat output of 100 kW/m2. Temperature is controlled by the use of a 3 type K thermocouples and a 3-term (PID) temperature controller. Specimen Holders - for specimens 100mm x 100mm up to 50mm thick can be used in the horizontal and vertical orientation. Load Cell - mass measurements are conducted via a strain gauge load cell with an accuracy of 0.01g. Spark Ignition - by 10 kV spark generator fitted with a safety cut-out device.

Exhaust System is manufactured from stainless steel for long life. This comprises, hood, gas sampling ring probe, exhaust fan (with adjustable flow controls from 0-50g/s, at a resolution of at least 0.1g/s) and an orifice plate flow measurement (thermocouple and differential pressure transducer). Normal operation is at a nominal 24 l/s. For Oxygen Analysis - paramagnetic oxygen analyzer is used, which has a range of 0-25% and a performance compliant with the standards. Smoke Obscuration – is measured with a laser system, using photodiodes, and a 0.5 mW. The rate of heat release is calibrated by the apparatus using methane of 99.5% purity.

Glove - box JACOMEX

The Glove box Jacomex GP -handling of products which are sensitive to atmospheric components (O2, H2O) in an environment under neutral gas.
The glove box operates both in overpressure and in partial vacuum: for example, from 10 to 30 mm H2O (100 to 300 Pa) or from -10 to -30 mm H2O (-100 to -300 Pa) depending on the desired utilization.

 

Light scattering system

Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZS two angle particle and molecular size analyzer for the enhanced detection of aggregates and measurement of small or dilute samples, and samples at very low or high concentration using dynamic light scattering with ‘NIBS’ optics.

Specification: Light source-633 nm He-Ne laser; measurement range 0.3nm-10microns; sample volume >12µL; temperature 0-90°C; Molecular weight 980Da-20MDa
Expertise:
Molecular size, Molecular weight, Particle size, Zeta potential

 

Ultra centrifuge

The Sigma 3-30KS super-speed refrigerated centrifuge benefits from a wide range of rotors for all common tubes.
Specification: High speed refrigerated centrifuge for maximum speed 30000 rpm, gravitational fields up to more than 65000 × g.

 

Expertise and Equipment

Activities of Department for biomaterials research spend from polymers synthesis through polymers characterization, biocompatibility studies and encapsulation of islets of Langerhans to multiple aspects related to the design of anti-cancer therapy.

• Polymer and peptide synthesis
The department’s laboratories are fully equipped for the synthesis of organic compounds, free radical polymerization, techniques of living/controlled polymerizations, and modification of polymers. Electro grafting setup (glove box and potentiostat) is used for covalent attachment of polymers to semiconducting and conducting surfaces.
We are equipped for the synthesis of affinity peptides by Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis and further modification of polymer materials by affinity peptides.

• Polymer characterization
We provide the expertise on the molecular characterization of polymers by size exclusion chromatography in aqueous and organic phases with RI, MALLS and fluorescence detections (4 parallel lines) together with static and dynamic light scattering measurements by BI-200 SM (Brookhaven Instrument Corp., USA) and Brice-Phoenix Co (USA). For characterization of mechanical properties of hydrogels by compression tests, Texture Analyser TA-2Xi (Godalming) is used. Biomaterials are characterized in term of optical microscopy, inverse size exclusion chromatography, CSLM, UV/Vis spectrometry,and FTIR spectroscopy (Nicolet 8700, USA).

• Cell culture and cell encapsulation
The laboratory is fully equipped for aseptic work with cells and cell lines including two sterile laminar cabinets, centrifuges, autoclave, CO2 incubator certified as medical device, fluorescent microscope with digital camera, and encapsulation set-up for cell and pancreatic islet encapsulation.